SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 9 with Answers (PENN STATE)
SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 9 Answer (PENN STATE)
- Which of these relatively important Americans is NOT mentioned in this chapter? [This might seem like a trivial thing, but it is not. Five of the six well-known figures below are connected in some way to the USA’s involvement in Latin America at this time.]
- The practice of creating, training, and equipping nonpartisan, local security forces (police, national guard, army) that could replace U.S. troops and allow them to withdraw from Latin American nations was called ____. The idea was to refrain from direct military intervention and to have the nonpartisan force guarantee the peace. This would allow these countries to build national institutions, democracy, and pursue economic development. The USA also provided loans, military equipment and training, as well as private investment as part of the nation-building process. Unfortunately, this policy often led to the establishment of long-lasting brutal dictatorships and repressive governments.
- The official announcement that the USA not only wished to protect all of the Americas, but also that it had the “right” to do so, was called ____. Basically it stipulated that the USA could intervene in Latin American nations to prevent European intervention.
- The idea that the Americas are no longer open to foreign (European) colonization, issued in a proclamation at the end of the first quarter of the 19th century, is known as _____.
- The Louisiana Purchase of 1803 was relatively insignificant since it only sold for 15 million dollars and the USA only obtained the area we now know as the state of Louisiana.
- By the 1930s, the political and economic influence of Great Britain in Latin America—including South America—was largely disappearing and that of the USA was growing dramatically. After 1945, U.S. power and influence in the region accelerates rapidly and is second to none.
- The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty is related to _____.
- As part of President William Howard Taft’s foreign policy designed to protect U.S. investment and businesses, the practice of sending in Marines to Latin American nations in order to establish order, take control of the customs houses, and then use the tariffs on imports and exports to guarantee payments to foreign creditors was called _____.
- The treaty that was signed that allowed the USA to build and fortify a canal in Panama carries the name of John Hay, the U.S. Secretary of State, and this man, a French canal company agent. He helped the nation declare its independence from Colombia and assured that the USA got the canal rights it so strongly desired.
- Which of the following is not one of the dictators that emerged as part of unintended consequences of the “Good Neighbor Policy”? These are the ones that Franklin D. Roosevelt referred to as “our sons of bitches.”
- The Spanish sold the area we know as the state of Florida to the USA in _____.
- General John J. “Black Jack” Pershing took 7,000 troops into Mexico in search of this Mexican revolutionary hero. The latter had raided the town of Columbus, New Mexico, and killed 17 U.S. citizens.
- The anti-imperial guerrilla leader who emerged in opposition to the USA’s involvement in Nicaragua in the 1920s was _____. His name will later be taken up by a revolutionary movement in that country.
- Great Britain exported to-- and invested heavily in--Latin America in the 19th century. The majority of the money went to three countries in particular. Which was NOT one of these countries?
- What two countries replace Spain and become the greatest political and economic influence on the region in the century after independence?
- Even though they sometimes disagreed with the policies of the USA, most Latin American intellectuals welcomed the “civilizing force” of the “Colossus of the North.”
- Approximately ___________ English-speaking West-Indian workers died in Panama during the construction of the Canal (many from diseased such as malaria and yellow fever). Tens of thousands of these workers came and transformed the racial and cultural landscape of Panama.
- After the war in 1898, Spain lost all of the following possessions except ____.
- Theodore Roosevelt and the “Rough Riders” are associated with this war. Roosevelt referred to it as a “splendid little war.”
- The USA had as much influence in South America as it did in Central America and Caribbean in the 19th century.
- Many people see the sinking of the USS Maine as the beginning of this war.
- Between 1898 and the early 1930s, the USA had sent troops to all but one of these countries. Which one did not see the presence of the U.S. Army or the Marine Corps?
- This hero of Cuban independence was also a Modernist poet who penned exceptional poems.
- The ___________ movement was seen as a rejection of the neoclassical Enlightenment culture of the 18th century (where the emphasis was on rationality, linearity, logic, science, and technology). This later movement lasted about fifty years in Latin America (1820s-1870s).
- José Vasconcelos was the minister of education in the early 1920s in Mexico and helped foster the nationalistic artwork of the _____________________. The leader of a cultural movement that sought to educate the masses and foster a sense of nationalism, Vasconcelos thought that schools, art, films, etc. should serve the didactic purpose of teaching everyone in Mexico what it meant to be “Mexican.” The works by these artists were perfect in that respect.
- This Mexican intellectual and Minister of Education believed that to be “Mexican” was to be part of a “cosmic race,” a racially and culturally mixed people primarily rooted in the pre-Colombian cultures of Mesoamerica. He is credited with the invention of the expression “la raza cósmica .” As part of his overall project, he initiated a government-sponsored cultural product that endured for decades, one that utilized art and aesthetics to promote a new sense of Mexican identity.
- A pro-Indian nativism that stressed the indigenous roots of the Andean society was called ___. Key authors from this movement include Miguel Angel Asturias and José Carlos Mariátegui.
- One of the most striking images of Brazilian Modernism was _____________. In this movement, the Brazilian intellectuals and artists wanted to devour all influences—European, African, indigenous—and then digest and produce something new, something uniquely Brazilian.
- The Modernist idea that art should not be conventional, but should, rather, pursue only beauty and truth is known as _____. To do this they turned to an experimental form of art that employed emotion, mysticism, spirituality, and the magical.
- This man wrote the Brazilian novel that tells the tale of Antonio Conselheiro, the leader of the rebellion in Canudos, Brazil, that we saw in an earlier chapter. He desperately wants Brazil to be European and that meant the elimination of the racially mixed people of the backlands.
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