SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 8 with Answers (PENN STATE)

SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 8 with Answers (PENN STATE)


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SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 8 Answer (PENN STATE)

  1. Liberals and conservatives in the 19th century in Latin America were seen as ____.
  2. Militarism and caudillos would cripple much of Latin America in the 19th century and leave an enduring legacy of authoritarianism and dictatorship in many countries.
  3. Liberals had assumed power in most Latin American nations by the _____, thus ending the so-called “lost half century” between independence and insertion into the international economy.
  4. The first caudillos in Latin America were often the leaders from the wars for independence from Spain.
  5. _____ are one of the chief legacies of the wars of independence. The term refers to a strong, charismatic leader who emerged out of the wars of independence. Often a local leader, this man embodied the martial virtues of the macho warrior. This term later will lose its rural, military origins and becomes a way to denote powerful, personalistic leaders in the later decades of the 20th century. Militarism would cripple much of Latin America in the 19th century and leave an enduring legacy of authoritarianism and dictatorship in many countries.
  6. Which of these nations did NOT experiment with monarchy in the 19th century?
  7. More than a political doctrine, Liberalism sought to replace the personalistic, corporatist, hierarchical order of Iberian colonialism with the ideal of the Enlightenment. It assumes the autonomy of the rational individual capable of using reason to makes choices in a society governed by a constitutional order that protects individual rights and equality before the law. It espoused free trade, the end of special privileges, hierarchy, corporatism, corporate interest groups, and personalistic rule.
  8. For centuries, the Church had been a virtual arm of the state and the clergy enjoyed the privileges of the “fuero” that set them apart legally and socially from others in society. Various sectors of the church had accumulated enormous wealth and resources. Still, for the radical Liberals in Mexico, the Church represented the epitome of the ills of the old colonial regime: privilege, hierarchy, and outmoded thought. It also saw the Church as a real challenge to the Liberal control of the nation-state.
  9. In the mid-19th century, the vast majority of the 20 million inhabitants of the new nations of Latin America were ____.
  10. Which of the following was NOT included in the discussion on the obstacles to modernization in Latin America in the 19th century?
  11. This nation stands out as the extreme case of political stability and delayed economic growth in Latin America in the aftermath of independence. In the fifty years after the declaration of independence from Spain, it would have more than 50 presidents.
  12. The Battle of the Alamo took place while this man was in power in Mexico.
  13. Which of these was NOT a part of the Liberal Reforms in Mexico in the mid-19th century?
  14. This treaty from 1848 effectively ended the Mexican-American War. Mexico lost 40% of its territory and for this reason states such as California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado are now part of the United States.
  15. This Tennessean and dozens of U.S. mercenaries briefly took control of Nicaragua in the 1850s. He declared himself president, but was defeated in 1857.
  16. The “civilization / barbarism” dichotomy represented a struggle between these two groups in Argentina.
  17. The man who wrote the influential essay Civilización y barbarie (Life in the Argentine Republic in the Days of the Tyrants; or, Civilization and Barbarism) is _____________.
  18. The Zapotec Indian who led Mexico from 1858-1872 was __________. This leader unified the Mexican liberals against the French, who had invaded Mexico.
  19. The Lerdo Law forced the sale of lands owned by the Catholic Church in Mexico that were not being used for religious purposes. (Some estimate that the Church owned 50% of the land in Mexico in the 1850s). This was part of a plan to put the land to use and increase the middle class.
  20. The _____________ were a group of positivist intellectuals in Mexico collectively known as ___. They served as technocrats, bureaucrats, and cabinet ministers and promoted the modernization of Mexico under the Porfirio DĂ­az regime.
  21. By the early 20th century, ____________ had become the principal market for all of the Caribbean, Mexico, and Central America. This country purchased about 30% of Latin America’s exports and this figure would continue to rise in the 20th century.
  22. “Cinco de Mayo” is the national celebration of Mexico’s independence from Spain, much like our 4th of July.
  23. In addition to being a chain of clothing stores in the USA, ________________ are nations whose small, weak mono-culture economies were easily influenced by powerful foreign influences.
  24. Most of Latin America has been densely populated and mostly urban for most of its history.
  25. This slogan refers to the drive to bring European immigrants to Argentina in the 19th century and to thereby “Europeanize” the nation. The population of Argentina rose from around 1.5 million to 8 million in 1914. From 1870-1914, nearly six million immigrants arrived. Half were from Italy and another quarter from Spain.
  26. The “Conquest of the Desert” (1879-1880) was a campaign that pushed the surviving indigenous peoples into harsh region of Patagonia, or annihilated those who resisted. The general who led this campaign was rewarded with the presidency in Argentina (1880-1886). The campaign opened up the plains for agricultural expansion. Who was the man who led this campaign?
  27. The “War of a Thousand Days” (Guerra de los Mil Días) was a conflict between the ________ in Colombia (1899-1902). Over 100,000 people died. The country at the time only had 3 million people, so that is a staggering number.
  28. In 1800 Brazil had the largest slave population in the world (half of its population). After abolition, Brazil witnessed a flood of European immigrants to meet their labor needs. Between 1887 and 1914, some 2.7 million immigrants—came to Brazil. They came mainly from ___________ and added even more to the already colorful cultural mosaic of the nation.
  29. Antonio Conselheiro was the leader of the Canudos revolt in Brazil (1897). This revolt serves as an illustration of the banditry and revolts in traditional rural society which are seen as a reaction to—and rejection of--the encroachment of modern, urban Brazil.
  30. The influence of Positivism is so strong in this country at the end of the 19th century that the slogan “Order and Progress” was placed on the nation’s flag (and it still appears there today).

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