SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 7 with Answers (PENN STATE)
SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 7 Answer (PENN STATE)
- Which of these was not a Viceroyalty (virreinato) in Spanish America?
- In which century did Spain and Portugal set out to reorganize and reform their empires in direct response to the rising challenges from the Dutch, English, and French? These reforms were known as the Bourbon Reforms and the Pombaline Reforms, respectively.
- The popular (i.e., of the people, masses) rebellions that rocked Spanish and Portuguese America in the late 18th and early 19th centuries were perceived by the creole elites in much the same way. In both regions they helped to bind the creole elites even more tightly to the monarchy and to refrain from any serious questioning of the status quo. These rebellions, and the slave revolt and successful revolution in Haiti, made the Europeanized elite realize that they needed royal protection and assistance to maintain social peace.
- The ____ presented the greatest economic threat to Spain and Portugal in the late 18th century. This country had emerged as the greatest naval and maritime power in the history of the world.
- All in all, the sense of a uniquely Brazilian identity developed in the same way and at the same time as the sense of an “American” or creole identity in Spanish America. People living in the colonies saw themselves as different from their countrymen who were born on the Iberian Peninsula. This emerging identity was equally strong in Brazil and was locally rooted. These “Americans” in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies saw themselves as not only different from the peninulares, but as equals or even superior to them.
- A review made by royal inspectors, such as José de Gálvez, was called ____. This was part of the overall system the Spanish Crown used in the 18th century to tighten their hold on colonial officials.
- The lack of greater economic opportunity and the absence of a stronger role in the administrative and political system became the great grievances of the Spanish and Portuguese Americans by the beginning of the 19th century.
- This Brazilian city, which was once a tiny, backward settlement in the 17th century, became the capital in 1763. It was the gateway for Portuguese colonists, African slaves, and supplies to the gold and diamond fields.
- The path of the British Colonies—the future USA—was virtually identical to that of the Latin American nations with respect to the desire for independence. Both regions shared the values of a political culture that, since the late Middle Ages, had increasingly placed checks on royal power and recognized individual rights. Furthermore, their religious and political preferences challenged and questioned the power of the king and the church. Therefore, the independence movements of the 19th century in Spanish and English America are a natural and inevitable conclusion to a process that had begun centuries earlier.
- In the 18th century we see a significant decline in gold and silver production in Spanish and Portuguese America. This is one of the main reasons these once-mighty empires begin to lose their grip on both their American colonies and their European possessions.
- In 1800, the combined indigenous, African, and mixed-race population was estimated to be between 18-20 million in Spanish America. Whites, however, only numbered about 3 million and among them, only 40,000 were peninsulares. Therefore, at the time of the independence movements, those who had the most power, wealth, and prestige constituted a very small minority.
- Vodun is a syncretic religion that most closely resembles ____ in that it is a mix of rites and symbols that originated in Africa but that were blended then with French Catholicism.
- This place became the world’s largest sugar plantation in the late 18th century and accounted for 1/3 of all of France’s foreign trade.
- In Mexico, Central America, and the Andes, Indians formed a large majority of the population in 1800. Black and mulattoes were the single largest group in the Caribbean and ______.
- At the time of independence, there were ___ viceroyalties in Spanish America.
- By 1800, a new sense of creole identity had emerged and many of the Spanish people living in Spanish America began to identify not with Spain but rather with their “patria” (country); therefore, they began to see themselves as Mexicans, Peruvians, Chileans, etc. instead of Spaniards.
- “Gens de couleur” on the island of Saint-Domingue were akin to what we called ____ when talking about Spanish America.
- This king’s rejection of the liberal reforms introduced in his absence (while deposed by Napoleon) eventually represented the final straw for the creoles. When he returned as an absolutist leader who sought to limit the power of the colonies and who rejected the constitiution written in 1812, the colonists who had been loyal to him abandoned ship and realized that they would need to be the ones to rule in the Americas. While he is not the last king in Spain, he is the king whose reign marks the final collapse of the Spanish empire in the Americas.
- For centuries, the loyalties of Spaniards had been to their king. This was an intensely direct and personal relationship that dated back to the Middle Ages. The Bourbon kings of the 18the century, however, moved away from this relationship and ruled using a more bureaucratic and rational system as compared to the more personalistic ethos of the Hapsburgs. This helps explain why at that point in history Spaniards begin to question the role of the king for the first time and why the idea of rule by someone other than the Spanish king is even possible.
- After 1750, the Spanish monarchy practiced open and systematic discrimination against the creoles. They were seen to be less competent and less loyal than peninsulares and therefore three of every four major imperial appointments went to the latter. Worse still, many positions were taken from creoles and given to peninsulares in an attempt to shore up royal authority in the Americas.
- This man issued the Plan de Iguala on February 24,1821, which led to the independence of Mexico. It called for a constitutional monarchy and the protection of “union, religion, and Independence.” Unlike the earlier popular (i.e., of the people/masses) movements, this movement was supported by the conservative forces: the Church, the military, the upper classes, and the creole elites. Although technically he liberated Mexico, neither he nor this date are celebrated as part of Mexican independence (As noted elsewhere, Sept. 16, has this distinction).
- This was the revolutionary counterpart to Simón Bolívar in the southern parts of South America. An Argentinean and former Spanish military officer, this man is seen as the “Libertador” of the Southern Cone.
- It can be said that despite the liberal principles of the Enlgihtenment that helped drive the movements for independence (especially the social and political rights), these principles do not flourish in the aftermath of independence. Some historians even refer to this situation with the expression “Same mule, different rider” since the creole elite—another white Europeanized minority—took the place of the “peninsulares.” We see no real change with respect to the issues of race, class, and rights for the vast majorty of the mixed race, African, and indigenous inhabitants.
- Before its independence in 1903, Panama was part of ______.
- This country is described as the most unsual country in the Americas in the nineteenth century. It was under control of the Viceroyalty of La Plata and was seen as perhaps the most racially, culturally, and linguistically mixed area in Spanish America. There were some 30 Jesuit missions there with as as many as 100,000 Guaraní indians around them. These Indians and the Spaniards mixed to create a unique mestizo society.
- Before independence, Gran Colombia was made up of all of the following countries except ____.
- Of all the regions of Spanish America, the creoles of Central America were the ones who most wanted independence from Spain. The powerful elite families there wanted to enact social and political changes that would bring about equal rights for the masses (comprised of African, indigenous, and the poor).
- The path to independence taken by Brazil was remarkably similar to that of the Spanish American nations. Brazil broke with its monarchical past in one decisive blow and became a federal state.
- This Venezuelan is the greatest of all Latin American revolutionary figures. He is seen, especially in the northern countries of South America, as the “Liberator.” He is their George Washington, so to speak.
- This man as seen as one of the heroes of Chilean independence. The son of an Irish father who had been Viceroy of Peru, he was educated in Europe and returned to Spanish America in 1802. He helped José de San Martín train and equip an “Army of the Andes,” an army which helped liberate the nation. For his efforts, he was named Supreme Dictator of Chile
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