SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 5 with Answers (PENN STATE)

SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 5 with Answers (PENN STATE)

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SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 5 Answer (PENN STATE)

  1. The most burdensome legacy of the colonial period, which lasted hundreds of years and in many ways continues to have an impact on modern Latin America, is _____. I gave an example of this which involved the “14 families” in El Salvador.]
  2. Impoverished Spaniards came to the New World in droves in the sixteenth century to take advantage of the new jobs that opened up in the Americas after the initial conquest was completed. They had to complete with the indigenous groups for all but the most difficult or unpleasant jobs, which the latter would always do either willingly or by force.
  3. The last country in the Americas to abolish slavery was Brazil. Under the “Golden Law,” slavery was finally abolished there in _____. Note that the slave trade itself had ended prior to this date.
  4. The Brazilian plantations were large and complex systems that connected many parcels of lands and peoples. They were not single, contiguous lands, but rathter many pieces with smaller landowners around the pieces.
  5. Throughout the colonial period and well into the 19th and 20th centuries in some places, the most powerful local, regional, and national political positions were filled by men whose wealth came from ______.
  6. The first great plantation society, driven by African slave labor, in the Americas was created by _____.
  7. The estimated number of African slaves who were captured, enslaved, and destined for the Americas—even though many died en route—was between _____. The number who actually made it to the New World alive is approximately half of this figure! (Use the text for this answer, not the images I gave you in the Comprehension Questions.)
  8. The Transatlantic slave trade (between Europe/Africa/the Americas) began in the 1440s and lasted until the 1860s.
  9. Why did the Iberians turn to African slave labor in parts of the New World instead of other forms of labor?
  10. This king, also known as the Holy Roman Emperor, became the great warrior in the sixteenth century for the Counter-Reformation. He exhausted much of the wealth of Spain and Spanish America in wars in Europe (against the Protestants) and in the Mediterranean (against the Turks).
  11. Jean Calvin of Geneva was to Calvinism what ________________ was to Protestantism. These were the two giants of the Reformation on the sixteenth century.
  12. The English replaced the Dutch as the great naval power in the second half of the seventeenth century. It was at this time that the English began to challenge the Spanish in the West Indies and, by the end of the century, created some 20 colonies in parts of Central America, South America, and the Bahamas. The French and the Dutch, too, seized islands at this time, thus helping to create the multinational, multilingual, and multiracial Caribbean region that we know today.
  13. In fifteenth and sixteenth century-Iberia, men filled all key positions of authority in royal government, and male priests dominated the church administration. Men controlled the legal system and made all the important decisions in the public sphere.
  14. In the sixteenth century, the Church (not the Crown) was in charge of health care, education, and other social services.
  15. This powerful institution based in Seville controlled the flow of goods and people in and out of Spain to the empire in the New World.
  16. The defeat of the “Invincible” Armada in 1588 signalled the end of the Spain’s maritime (naval) supremacy and, after that, the French, English, and Dutch were able to successfully challenge Spanish hegemony in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans.
  17. The patriarchal and patrimonial system that existed in Spain was characterized by all but which of the following?
  18. Which of the following faiths espouses the following ideals? It is not enough to be a devout believer, a good Christian had to demonstrate his belief through actions and behavior. An individual is responsible for creating (or reforming) a society that would allow them to live out their beliefs. By the 1560s, two-thirds of the Dutch had converted to this faith.
  19. The _____ developed one of the largest maritime fleets in world history and, much like the Genoese in the 15th century, they had become the great overseas merchants and financiers of the 16th and 17th centuries. They formed the cutting edge of modern economic development and were the advance guard in the emergence of modern capitalism.
  20. All of the following are excellent examples of religious syncretism with the exception of ______.
  21. Unlike the other major religious orders, the ____ were formed in the sixteenth century (1530s) in the heat of the Reformation and the Counter Reformation. This group was created by a Spanish soldier named Ignatius of Loyola who had a religious vision and then dedicated his life to saving souls for Christ. His followers organized the order along military lines.
  22. The Florentine Codex is a monumental source for the study of ___ culture and society as it existed before the arrival of the Spaniards.
  23. In exchange for financial and military support for the Vatican, the Pope granted the monarchies in Spain and Portugal the right to appoint church officials. This gave them effective control of the administration of Church jurisdictions, the collections of revenues (the tithe), and the payment of salaries. This relationship was called ____.
  24. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the Mayan society (either in terms of overall worldview or religious beliefs)?
  25. Mexico’s patron saint is said to have appeared to an indigenous peasant in 1531 in a site north of Mexico City. The site, Tepeyac, is a hill associated with the Aztec goddess of the earth and now is home to the church built in honor of the saint. Who is this cult figure who has become such a powerful national symbol and who represents a blend of a prehispanic deity with a major Catholic figure?
  26. In Spain and Portugal, the Church and the State were intimately intertwined. This linkage had begun during the Reconquest and in essence the Church was a virtual arm of the State by the time these groups arrived in the New World.
  27. The Holy Office for the Propagation of the Faith was another name for the ___.
  28. This man, a Dominican priest and former encomendero, is known as the “Protector of the Indians” for his unequaled work in defense of indigenous peoples of the Americas. He wrote his A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies in 1539 .
  29. This group was known for being the great educator of the Catholic Church in that it founded many colleges and universities. It was also known for being one of the powerful religious players in Brazil, China, Japan in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Although a relatively new society, it boasted of having more than 15,000 members by the early 17th Century. Even though it was a religious order, it became powerful and wealthy from the ownership of plantations and haciendas in the Americas and was even feared by the Spanish and Portuguese monarchies to the extent that the former would be expelled repeatedly by the latter.

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