SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 4 with Answers (PENN STATE)

SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 4 with Answers (PENN STATE)


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SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 4 Answer (PENN STATE)

  1. Along with Gerónimo de Aguilar, Cortés had this person in his army to serve as translator. She was an indigenous woman who had been sold into slavery. Since this was a person who knew the ways and languages of the peoples of the region, she was an enormous asset to Cortés.
  2. This was the last Incan emperor. The Inca were defeated and he was killed (garrotted, as was Montezuma) by the forces led by Francisco Pizarro.
  3. One of the main reasons that the Spaniards chose to populate the more densely populated regions of Latin America was because it allowed them to take advantage of the large numbers of indigenous workers.
  4. This indigenous group in central Mexico saw the Aztecs as enemies. Even though they originally fought against the Spaniards, in the end they allied themselves with Cortés and were instrumenteal in the defeat of the Aztecs.
  5. This is the generic term that the Spaniards used to refer to all indigenous leaders.
  6. The Dominican priest is known as “Protector of the Indians.” He was instrumental in denouncing the atrocities and abuses committed by the Spaniards in the New World. Indirectly, he is responsible for the creation of the Black Legend.
  7. This conquistador is responsible for the defeat of the Aztecs and the subsequent destruction of their capital on Lake Texcoco. This city was razed and Mexico City was built in its place.
  8. Which of the following was not a factor that allowed the Spaniards to defeat the indigenous peoples they encountered?
  9. This labor system was transferred from Spain to the New World. A version of it was used in the Reconquest and a modified form was used later in the colonization of the Americas. It was a grant from the Crown for the use of land and labor on it. Basically, it stipulated that the indigenous would do forced labor for the Spaniards and in return they would protect and Christianize them. In essence, as we will see, it was a disguised form of slave labor.
  10. This was the language of the Incas.
  11. This is the explorer whose travels and books helped pave the way for later European maritime endeavors in the 15th century. He lived from 1254-1324 and wrote of his travels to the Persian Gulf, Iran, and central Asia via the old Silk Road. These writings fueled the European desire to find an alternate route to the Indies.
  12. In the 15th century, the most impressive profits came from ___.
  13. Latin American history began in the late __________________ century when a group of small, newly emerging nations in Europe embarked on overseas voyages in pursuit of trade with Africa and Asia.
  14. This Portuguese man—known to history as “The Navigator”—brought together mapmakers, astronomers, and other experts in Sagres (southern Portugal) in order to push the process of overseas expansion. Because of endeavors such as this, Portugal was at the cutting edge of maritime expertise by the 15th century.
  15. Which of these is NOT a core feature of modern capitalism that takes shape during the Renaissance?
  16. Innovations in science, knowledge, and technology provided the new European nations with the means for expansion in the fifteenth century. Astronomical knowledge, the compass and other navigational tools (e.g., the astrolab), the caravel, etc. allowed them to make longer voyages and attempt to discover a water route to the east.
  17. The fortified trading posts set up along the African coasts (and later in the Americas—the future Brazil) were called factories (or ‘feitorias’).
  18. One unfortunate result of the “discovery” of the New World was the introduction of Old World diseases and the subsequent demographic catastrophe, which is seen as the largest in human history. Smallpox, influenza, measles, to name a few, led to the annihilation of millions. It is estimated that approximately _________ of the indigenous population of the Americas had died from Old World diseases within 50 years after the initial encounter in 1492.
  19. Although mixed with other motives, the desire of Europeans to find and save souls was sincere and profound. Overseas expansion offered an unprecendented opportunity to carry the message of Christ to other peoples. In fact, as a result of the Reconquest, Iberian Catholicism became the most militant and aggressive in Europe.
  20. The Aztecs and Incas were creating and dominating their respective regions in the Americas at roughly the same time (15th century) that Spain was finishing the Reconquest and consolidating Christian control of the Iberian Peninsula.
  21. This was the first Brazilian capital.
  22. Of the 12 captaincies that made up Brazil in the 16th century, only eight were settled in that century and the only two that flourished were Sao Vicente and _______________.
  23. This man went in search of the Seven Golden Cities of Cíbola and wandered through what would later be Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
  24. This treaty from 1494 granted all lands west of the line of demarcation to the Spanish. All discoveries to the east of the line were to go to the Portuguese.
  25. This Portuguese man served as the governor general over all the newly formed Brazilian captaincies. He also founded a new colonial capital on the northeastern coast of the captaincy of Bahia.
  26. Six young priests from the recently established religious group the Society of Jesus, better known as the ____, accompanied the first governor general of Brazil. This group will play an important role in the region during the colonial era.
  27. This man discovered Brazil for the Portuguese in 1500.
  28. This was a complex federation of perhaps a million indigenous people near the present location of Bogotá, Colombia. Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada and his expedition encoutners this civilization in 1537-1538.
  29. The conquest and colonization of Brazil by the Portuguese, especially for the first fifty years, was similar to the conquest and colonization of the Caribbean by the Spaniards. There were no large, dense indigenous civilizations there and they were content to set up factories (feitorias) on the coast.
  30. This Spaniard was the first to find and travel 2,000 miles down the Amazon River to the Atlantic. His encounter with women warriors—who he thought were the Amazons of Greek mythology—eventually gave the river its modern day name.

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