SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 12 with Answers (PENN STATE)

SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 12 with Answers (PENN STATE)


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SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 12 Answer (PENN STATE)

  1. In the 1950s, Nationalists from Puerto Rico tried to assassinate President Truman and also opened fire during a session of the U.S. House of Representatives.
  2. Operation Bootstrap was ________ in the 1950s.
  3. The _____________ took place in Colombia from 1899-1902 and left 100,000 dead. It was yet another example of the struggles that took place between Liberals and Conservatives.
  4. __________ was president of Venezuela from 1998 until his death this year (2013). He resisted and resented U.S. power and influence in the world.
  5. Political parties gradually emerged in the early 20th century in Puerto Rico. Then, like today, the platforms of these parties are largely tied to the island’s political status vis-à-vis the USA: statehood, independence, status quo.
  6. In the wake of the Chaco War (1932-1935), military leaders—and oftentimes fascist sympathizers—dominated politics in Paraguay. This general seized power in Paraguay and established one of the more enduring dictatorships (1954-1989) in Latin American history.
  7. There were more than 120 rulers in the Dominican Republic between the 1810s and the 1930s. Political instability continued to be the norm until the 1960s.
  8. Over the last several decades, the citizens of Puerto Rico have been divided almost evenly between two opposite stances: pro-statehood and independence. The third option, that of ‘status quo’ (commonwealth status) only gets about 1% of the vote when it appears on plebiscites.
  9. In Colombia, drug trafficking permeates all aspects of life: the revenues from the multibillion dollar drug trade provide the country with a favorable trade balance, provide employment for thousands, and finance politicians of all types.
  10. While Venezuela and Colombia are largely white and mestizo nations with small populations of African and indigenous heritage, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia have had indigenous majorities for most of their history. Moreover, Ecuador and Peru have significant groups of African and Asian descent along the Pacific coast.
  11. The ________________ is the name for the 20th century civil war between Liberals and Conservatives in Colombia. Hundreds of thousands of Colombians died in this conflict.
  12. The name for the manure—bird dropping left over the course of thousands of years—that was once abundant in Peru and that was at one point the source of 80% of the government revenues is _______________. These deposits were virtually exhausted by the 1890s.
  13. Which man is not associated with Haitian history?
  14. Which of the following countries does not fit into the category of living “in the shadow of the eagle (read: the USA)”?
  15. _____________ is seen by many as an effort to counterbalance the rising power of the USA and its efforts to construct a hemispheric customs union (i.e., a Free Trade Area of the Americas, or FTAA). Its members include Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Chile.
  16. What does the author suggest is the single most striking feature of Latin America?
  17. A project from the 1950s in which Puerto Rico sought to industrialize by attracting firms to the island with the incentives of very cheap labor and tax breaks was known as ___. The industrialization in Puerto Rico led to a “domestic” industrial sector dominated nearly 100% by core industries controlled by non-Puerto Ricans.
  18. We see powerful socialist and radical challenges to the capitalist model in the second half of the 20th century due to the powerful desire to remedy the social and economic problems of the region, and the belief that capitalism had created those problems.
  19. By some definitions, nearly ___ of all Latin Americans live in poverty. In many places, poverty and inequality continue to define Latin America.
  20. At the end of the 20th century, Brazil and ___________ had the two largest economies in Latin America.
  21. Even though there are vast differences between the nations that we call collectively Latin America, we can say with confidence that the societies and economies of the different countries are very similar in nature. That is to say, trade policies, level of industrialization, number of people below the poverty line, etc. are very close, if not identical, in the various regions.
  22. In Latin America today, the richest 10% of the population controls nearly half of all household income, while the poorest 40% receives only between 10-20%. Latin America has one of the highest income inequalities in the world.
  23. Between 1890 and 1900, this city’s population grew from 70,000 to 240,000. Much like Buenos Aires and Montevideo, (and New York), tens of thousands of immigrants—Italians, Germans, etc. –flooded into the city and the state. Even though the growth is attributable to the expansion of coffee cultivation in the surrounding area, the city later became a dynamic center of industrial growth due to the entrepreneurial talents of the coffee planters, industrialists, and the immigrants who came there.
  24. Which of the statements about modern day Latin America compared to Latin America in the year 1900 is inaccurate?
  25. We know that the “Washington Consensus,” under which the World Bank, the International Monetrary Fund, and the Inter-American Development Bank, along with other international agencies became the means to pressure countries around the world to sign onto a “consensus” that involved the following: balanced budgets, reduced role of the state, more open trade, and privatization of the economy. (This is essentially the economic model known as neo-liberalism, which swept across Latin America in the 1980s and 1990s.) What U.S. president was an outspoken advocate for these policies in the 1980s?
  26. The legacy of latifundio—the large landed estate—is now a thing of the past. There are no longer any real visible signs of this institution as Latin America faces new, more modern problems.
  27. During the centuries of colonial rule, the Iberian monarchies chose to isolate, exploit, and control the resources and people of Latin America, all for the benefit of the underdeveloped economies of Spain and Portugal.
  28. After a slow start in the first part of the 19th century, Latin American nations were able to embark on a process of industrialization that rivaled the already industrialized North Atlantic economies. They stopped solely producing and providing agricultural goods and raw materials and instead undertook a massive effort to develop internally.

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