SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 11 with Answers (PENN STATE)

SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 11 with Answers (PENN STATE)


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SPAN 131 SPAN131 Quiz 11 Answer (PENN STATE)

  1. In the early 1980s, Castro allowed another 125,000 Cubans to leave the island. These people were known as “____” (named after the key port of departure in Cuba). These were darker-skinned, poorer, and less educated that the wave that left 2 decades earlier. It is reported that Castro also sent along hardened criminals and patients from insane asylums.
  2. We see a resurgence of revolution in Central America after a decade of right-wing military dictatorships. This also coincided with the rise of Ronald Reagan here, Margaret Thatcher in England, and Neoliberal economics worldwide.
  3. The ___________ incident of 1961 was seen as a poorly planned and badly executed attempt to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro. The Eisenhower administration had handed this plan over to President John F. Kennedy, who approved the failed mission.
  4. Which of the following is NOT true with respect to Nicaragua under the Somoza regime?
  5. Fidel Castro was deeply inspired by this Cuban poet and revolutionary hero, a man we studied earlier this semester.
  6. The “two Cubas” of the 1950s referenced in the text is an expression that refers (1) to the island itself and (2) the large exile community in Miami and New York.
  7. In the early 1960s, some ______ Cuban fled into exile, mainly to South Florida and New York-New Jersey areas.
  8. The current leader of Cuba, Fidel’s brother Raul Castro, was on board the Granma when it sailed to Cuba from Mexico in 1956 to overthrow the dictator.
  9. Fidel Castro was imprisoned on the Isle of Pines for two years as a result of ___________.
  10. Which of the following is NOT true with respect the the Nicaraguan National Guard?
  11. By the mid-sixties, Cuba had moved from a capitalist economy tightly intergrated into the U.S. to a socialized economy integrated in the ___________.
  12. This movement began to emerge in the 1950s across Latin America and experienced explosive growth in the 1960s. In it, the Catholic Church began to show a “preferential option for the poor.” That is, along with a message of worldly redemption, the Church began to emphasize working with the impoverished masses. This grassroots movement motivated many poor Nicaraguans to seek better lives through spiritual and social change.
  13. Both Che Guevara and Fidel Castro were born poor and suffered throughout their lives the injustices and inequities of a system that favor the wealthy elites. This is perhaps the best explanation for the fact that they became two of Latin America’s most infamous revolutionaries.
  14. In 1961, in an attempt to help promote economic development, end poverty, force repressive governments to become more democratic, and thereby create a capitalist, democratic, pro-United States Latin America, the USA launched a sort of mini-Marshall Plan known as the _________________. It provided $20 billion in aid and expertise to Latin America.
  15. Today, Cuba still ranks among the top five countries in Latin America when one looks at social indicators—literacy, life expectancy, infant mortality.
  16. Juan Perón, the well-known Argentine leader, is seen as the ultimate populist politician. Populist leaders are characterized by their ability to move the masses (and middle class) through a rhetoric of economic growth, political reforms, and social welware programs.
  17. Which of the following countries did NOT manage to build long-term reformist movements that generally avoided bloodshed, civil war, and coup d’etats, allowing them to develop strong, representative, electoral systems by mid-twentieth century?
  18. The __________ were urban guerrillas in Uruguay. They were mostlt university-educated, middle class, young people inspired by Marx, Lenin, Che Guevara, and the Cuban Revolution. They took their name from the iconic 18th century Inca rebel we studied earlier this semester.
  19. Which of these is NOT true with respect to Uruguay in the mid to late 1970s?
  20. Which of these is NOT true about Costa Rica in the second half of the 20th century?
  21. In Chile in 1970 we see the first democratically-elected socialist leader in the Western Hemisphere. He was bombed out the presidential palace in Chile on September 11, 1973 during a bloody coup d’etat led by this man, who would take over as dictator after the coup.
  22. Which of these are reforms that Pepe Figueres carried out in 1948 in Costa Rica?
  23. The elite of this country liked to envision the country as the “Switzerland of the Americas”: As early as the early 20th century, they had built a vibrant export economy, a social welfare state, and a highly educated and sophisticated citenzenry who had the right to vote (all men and women by 1932).
  24. As we have seen elsewhere in this unit, the USA intervened directly in the affairs of a Latin American nation; this time in Costa Rica when José (Pepe) Figueres, the son of Catalan immigrants, led a rebel force against the Costa Rican government in 1948. He took power in that same year, but was ousted by the USA in 1949 after a brief rule.
  25. The “Tragic Week” (Semana Trágica) of 1919 took place in ________. During this time, the police and military killed hundreds, wounded thousands, and imprisoned tens of thousands in response to a national strike.
  26. When someone says “Anaconda” in Chile in relation to the economy, instead to a type of snake, they are likely referring to _______________.
  27. The “Switzerland of the Americas” fell victim to a cycle of leftist insurrection and right-wing, military repression. In February 1973, the military seized power in a coup and instituted one of the most brutal and repressive military dictatorships in the history of Latin America.
  28. The vision known as the ___________ guided the military in the 1960s and 1970s. It had its origins in the military schools of Latin America and was deeply influenced by training in the USA. Latin American officers developed a sophisticated view of hown their country fit into the superpower struggle. In this view, the world was divided into two camps: one Christian and Democratic, and one that was atheist and communist. Their political objective was to crush any forms of internal subversion (here, meaning anyone on the Left).
  29. ________________ is the capital and largest city in Uruguay. Like Buenos Aires, it is quite cosmopolitan and serves as the main port in the nation.
  30. The period from 1976-1979 in Argentina was known as La Guerra Sucia (The Dirty War). During this time, the Argentine military and police killed some 9,000-10,000 people (some estimates are as high as 30,000!) who were seen as “threats” to the regime and stability of the nation. Torture was widespread and a new term arose at this time to refer to the “disappeared;” that is, the people taken and killed by the army/police that were never to be found.

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