SPAN 131 SPAN131 EXIT EXAM with Answers (PENN STATE)

SPAN 131 SPAN131 EXIT EXAM with Answers (PENN STATE)


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  1. The name “America” comes from the name of an European explorer (Amerigo Vespucci).
  2. The great “mother” civilization or culture of Mesoamerica was that of ____ since many of the peoples there inherited from them their religious traditions, notions of time, and artistic styles.
  3. This was the capital of the Aztec civilization.
  4. This was a Mesoamerican god who was expelled from Tula and was expected to return in 1519 (on the Christian calendar) to reclaim his kingdom. It so happens that Hernán Cortés, the conquistador who would defeat the Aztecs, arrived that very year.
  5. The Aztecs and Incas were creating and dominating their respective regions in the Americas at roughly the same time (15th century) that Spain was finishing the Reconquest and consolidating Christian control of the Iberian Peninsula.
  6. ____________ were fertile patches of land built up in Lake Texcoco in grid-like patterns. They were used by the Aztecs to increase the arable soil around Tenochtitlán. This was crucial since the capital was built on a lake and a highly productive agricultural area was needed to maintain the nearly quarter of a million people who lived there.
  7. Although mixed with other motives, the desire of Europeans to find and save souls was sincere and profound. Overseas expansion offered an unprecendented opportunity to carry the message of Christ to other peoples. In fact, as a result of the Reconquest, Iberian Catholicism became the most militant and aggressive in Europe.
  8. The ____________, more so than any other Iberian people, had honed and accumulated knowledge about astronomy, cartography, shipbuilding, and sailing. They had also completed the reconquest in 1253 and were therefore able to complete the process of territorial consolidation very early. This allowed them to become the first nation-state in Europe and made them the leaders in maritime endeavors.
  9. This man discovered Brazil for the Portuguese in 1500.
  10. This treaty from 1494 granted all lands west of the line of demarcation to the Spanish. All discoveries to the east of the line were to go to the Portuguese.
  11. This Spaniard was the first to find and travel 2,000 miles down the Amazon River to the Atlantic. His encounter with women warriors—who he thought were the Amazons of Greek mythology—eventually gave the river its modern day name.
  12. This is the term used to describe a person of mixed race, and more specifically, European and indigenous (American Indian).
  13. The Dominican priest is known as “Protector of the Indians.” He was instrumental in denouncing the atrocities and abuses committed by the Spaniards in the New World. Indirectly, he is responsible for the creation of the Black Legend.
  14. This conquistador is responsible for the defeat of the Aztecs and the subsequent destruction of their capital on Lake Texcoco. This city was razed and Mexico City was built in its place.
  15. This was the language of the Incas.
  16. Along with Gerónimo de Aguilar, Cortés had this person in his army to serve as translator. She was an indigenous woman who had been sold into slavery. Since this was a person who knew the ways and languages of the peoples of the region, she was an enormous asset to Cortés.
  17. This labor system was transferred from Spain to the New World. A version of it was used in the Reconquest and a modified form was used later in the colonization of the Americas. It was a grant from the Crown for the use of land and labor on it. Basically, it stipulated that the indigenous would do forced labor for the Spaniards and in return they would protect and Christianize them. In essence, as we will see, it was a disguised form of slave labor.
  18. This was the Aztec emperor that allowed the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés to enter the capital at Tenochtitlán, thus facilitating his own capture and the fall of the entire civilization.
  19. The conquest and colonization of Brazil by the Portuguese, especially for the first fifty years, was similar to the conquest and colonization of the Caribbean by the Spaniards. There were no large, dense indigenous civilizations there and they were content to set up factories (feitorias) on the coast.
  20. This was the last Incan emperor. The Inca were defeated and he was killed (garrotted, as was Montezuma) by the forces led by Francisco Pizarro.
  21. Spaniards rarely, if ever, had sexual relations with indigenous women (or African slaves later). In this aspect of Latin American history we can see great similarities with the original settlers of the United States.
  22. Until fairly recently, we called the indigenous or native peoples of the Americas “Indians” because Columbus mistakenly thought he had reached the “Indies”—a somewhat generic term for Asia/India—and therefore called the inhabitants of the lands he encountered “indios” or Indians. The more politically correct term "Native Americans" is also problematic, as we have seen.
  23. The most burdensome legacy of the colonial period, which lasted hundreds of years and in many ways continues to have an impact on modern Latin America, is _____. I gave an example of this which involved the “14 families” in El Salvador.]
  24. Throughout the colonial period and well into the 19th and 20th centuries in some places, the most powerful local, regional, and national political positions were filled by men whose wealth came from ______.
  25. Under the ____ system, Spaniards were asked to protect and Christianize the indigenous peoples who were living on their land and who were entrusted to them. In return, the Indians would pay tribute to the Spaniards in the form of labor or payment of some kind. The Spaniards themselves did not hold title this land, but rather were granted the use of it from the Crown in exchange for certain obligations.
  26. The Transatlantic slave trade (between Europe/Africa/the Americas) began in the 1440s and lasted until the 1860s.
  27. The patriarchal and patrimonial system that existed in Spain was characterized by all but which of the following?
  28. The cultures of Africans and Native American, like that of the Spaniards, had strong traditions of collectivism, corporatism, privilege, and hierarchy. The Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas in particular had constructed a social and political pyramid that paralled that of the incoming Spanish society. The Spaniards were able to take advantage of the situation by incorporating the social and political hierarchies of pre-Columbian America into the New Order they constructed. The result was that rule by Spaniards was seen, in a way, as being “natural” (even if unwelcome) since it was a structure they recognized.
  29. The ________________ was created in 1535. It was the large territorial and administrative division that stretched from the southern tier of present USA through Mexico and Central America to Panama. It also included Central America, the northern tip of South America and the Philippines.
  30. This powerful institution based in Seville controlled the flow of goods and people in and out of Spain to the empire in the New World.
  31. The conquest and conversion of peoples in the New World was a continuation of a process that had begun during the Reconquest in Spain. In this sense, Christianity can be said to have an aggressive and militant nature and the Spaniards at the time were perhaps the most militant and proselytizing of all Christians in Europe.
  32. In Spain and Portugal, the Church and the State were intimately intertwined. This linkage had begun during the Reconquest and in essence the Church was a virtual arm of the State by the time these groups arrived in the New World.
  33. This group was known for being the great educator of the Catholic Church in that it founded many colleges and universities. It was also known for being one of the powerful religious players in Brazil, China, Japan in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Although a relatively new society, it boasted of having more than 15,000 members by the early 17th Century. Even though it was a religious order, it became powerful and wealthy from the ownership of plantations and haciendas in the Americas and was even feared by the Spanish and Portuguese monarchies to the extent that the former would be expelled repeatedly by the latter.
  34. Mexico’s patron saint is said to have appeared to an indigenous peasant in 1531 in a site north of Mexico City. The site, Tepeyac, is a hill associated with the Aztec goddess of the earth and now is home to the church built in honor of the saint. Who is this cult figure who has become such a powerful national symbol and who represents a blend of a prehispanic deity with a major Catholic figure?
  35. The term used to refer to Spaniards that were born in the New World was ____. These Spaniards were seen as inferior to their counterparts who were born in Spain and had comparatively very little power and prestige. This group increasingly saw themselves as not just Spaniards (or English or Portuguese)—they began to create a novel identity that was “American.”
  36. In Brazil and in the Caribbean, the predominant racial mix in the colonial era was that of the ______. In the early 19th century, for example, only a quarter of the population in Brazil was “white.”
  37. This writer is seen as the greatest literary figure of colonial Latin America. Interestingly, she was a Mexican nun.
  38. Is this description accurate: Two centuries after the initial conquest, a small white elite stood atop the social pyramid, dominating a huge population of Indians, African slaves, and the racially mixed. A small but significant portion of the population composed primarily of lower-status whites and the most Europeanized non-whites (mestizos) formed the middle of the pyramid. The Africans and indigenous—and their racially mixed offspring--formed the large lower base of the pyramid.
  39. Which of these did NOT play a role in the eventual creation of independence movements in Spanish America?
  40. José Gabriel Condorcanqui was the real name of the man we know as _____. Like his Incan namesake, who rebelled against the Spaniards in the sixteenth century, this man led a revolt against the Spaniards in 1780-1781 in Peru. Both men were executed by the Spanish as a warning to others who might challenge royal authority. 100,000 people died in this rebellion and today it is seen as one of the precursors of the movements for independence.
  41. This former slave led the revolt that culminated in the independence of Haiti. He was captured and sent off to a French prison where he died in 1803. Haiti proclaimed its independence the following year thanks in large part to the efforts of this man.
  42. Conservatives in 19th century Latin America wanted or did all of the following except ___.
  43. _____ are one of the chief legacies of the wars of independence. The term refers to a strong, charismatic leader who emerged out of the wars of independence. Often a local leader, this man embodied the martial virtues of the macho warrior. This term later will lose its rural, military origins and becomes a way to denote powerful, personalistic leaders in the later decades of the 20th century. Militarism would cripple much of Latin America in the 19th century and leave an enduring legacy of authoritarianism and dictatorship in many countries.
  44. This treaty from 1848 effectively ended the Mexican-American War. Mexico lost 40% of its territory and for this reason states such as California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado are now part of the United States.
  45. Many Latin American intellectuals and leaders fell under the influence of the philosophy of _____________ in the nineteenth century. This philosophy glorified reason and scientific knowledge and rejected traditional religious beliefs. In this view, with the guidance of science humanity would enter into a new age where technicians and engineers would run an authoritarian republic. This took root in place like Mexico and Brazil, whose flag even reads “Order and Progress.”
  46. The Zapotec Indian who led Mexico from 1858-1872 was __________. This leader unified the Mexican liberals against the French, who had invaded Mexico.
  47. “Cinco de Mayo” is the national celebration of Mexico’s independence from Spain, much like our 4th of July.
  48. The idea that the Americas are no longer open to foreign (European) colonization, issued in a proclamation at the end of the first quarter of the 19th century, is known as _____.
  49. The idea that the USA has a God-given right to expand from “sea to shining sea,” that is, from the east coast to the west coast, is known as __________. This idea was made popular by the newspaper editor John L. Sullivan.
  50. Theodore Roosevelt and the “Rough Riders” are associated with this war. Roosevelt referred to it as a “splendid little war.”
  51. After the war in 1898, Spain lost all of the following possessions except ____.
  52. As part of President William Howard Taft’s foreign policy designed to protect U.S. investment and businesses, the practice of sending in Marines to Latin American nations in order to establish order, take control of the customs houses, and then use the tariffs on imports and exports to guarantee payments to foreign creditors was called _____.
  53. José Vasconcelos was the minister of education in the early 1920s in Mexico and helped foster the nationalistic artwork of the _____________________. The leader of a cultural movement that sought to educate the masses and foster a sense of nationalism, Vasconcelos thought that schools, art, films, etc. should serve the didactic purpose of teaching everyone in Mexico what it meant to be “Mexican.” The works by these artists were perfect in that respect.
  54. This Mexican intellectual and Minister of Education believed that to be “Mexican” was to be part of a “cosmic race,” a racially and culturally mixed people primarily rooted in the pre-Colombian cultures of Mesoamerica. He is credited with the invention of the expression “la raza cósmica .” As part of his overall project, he initiated a government-sponsored cultural product that endured for decades, one that utilized art and aesthetics to promote a new sense of Mexican identity.
  55. A pro-Indian nativism that stressed the indigenous roots of the Andean society was called ___. Key authors from this movement include Miguel Angel Asturias and José Carlos Mariátegui.
  56. This hero of Cuban independence was also a Modernist poet who penned exceptional poems.
  57. _____________ is one of the most potent forces that binds together many diverse peoples and cultures around loyalty to an idea. The diverse peoples of Latin American nations ferociously defend the idea and national reality of a “Brazil” or “Mexico,” for example, even though they are part of a smaller regional or subnational community.
  58. The beginning of the Mexican Revolution marked the end of the rule of _______________, a 35-year dictatorship.
  59. The ______ became a massive political machine whose candidates would always win the presidency, governorships, and control of the congress. Although known by different names in the early years, the party held power for some 70 years after the Mexican Revolution. [This party lost the elections in 2000 for the first time since its formation. However, the current president of Mexico, Enrique Peña Nieto (2012-), is a member of this party.]
  60. “La Frutera” is another name for “el pulpo.” Both of these nicknames are used to refer to ___________, a powerful transnational corporation that became the largest landowner in Guatemala and elsewhere in Central America. It owned the only railway in the country at that time and that railway was used primarily to take their products to the coast for export.
  61. All of the successful revolutionary movements in 20th century Latin America were propelled by three things. Which was NOT one of them?
  62. We know that Jacobo Arbenz, the democratically elected leader in Guatemala, was replaced by a CIA-backed coup (“Operation Success”) after he began to implement social and economic reforms. His successor tossed out all the reforms and initiated four decades of military-dominated rule. Some 200,000 people would die in the conflicts during this time. Who was this military leader who ruled after Arbenz?
  63. Fidel Castro toppled this dictator and took power on January 1, 1959. He had controlled politics on the island from 1934 with U.S. support.
  64. The ___________ incident of 1961 was seen as a poorly planned and badly executed attempt to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro. The Eisenhower administration had handed this plan over to President John F. Kennedy, who approved the failed mission.
  65. This Nicaraguan man, who fought tirelessly against U.S. imperialism and the presence of U.S. troops in his homeland in the early 20th century, became the symbol for the later revolutionary fighters of the 1970s. Inspired, the FSLN takes his name and fights to overthrow the Somoza regime.
  66. This movement began to emerge in the 1950s across Latin America and experienced explosive growth in the 1960s. In it, the Catholic Church began to show a “preferential option for the poor.” That is, along with a message of worldly redemption, the Church began to emphasize working with the impoverished masses. This grassroots movement motivated many poor Nicaraguans to seek better lives through spiritual and social change.
  67. The C.I.A. financed and trained the “Contras” (counterrevolutionaries) to fight against the revolutionaries in _____. They became a household name in the Reagan era after the Iran-Contra Scandal.
  68. The period from 1976-1979 in Argentina was known as La Guerra Sucia (The Dirty War). During this time, the Argentine military and police killed some 9,000-10,000 people (some estimates are as high as 30,000!) who were seen as “threats” to the regime and stability of the nation. Torture was widespread and a new term arose at this time to refer to the “disappeared;” that is, the people taken and killed by the army/police that were never to be found.
  69. This human rights group became the most vocal critic of the military regime in Argentina and peacefully protested in the main square, calling for accountability on the part of the government for the “disappeared.”
  70. In Chile in 1970 we see the first democratically-elected socialist leader in the Western Hemisphere. He was bombed out the presidential palace in Chile on September 11, 1973 during a bloody coup d’etat led by this man, who would take over as dictator after the coup.
  71. Along with Argentina, this country is one the two most ethnically European nations in Latin America. About 95 percent of the population is of European descent and only about 5% non-white. In 2013 the country voted to legalize same sex marriages. It was only the third country in the Americas to do so (along with Canada and Argentina)].
  72. _______________ was captured and executed by a special unit of the Bolivian army, which was trained and assisted by the CIA, while trying to start a new revolution in that country in 1967. Prior to that, he had been instrumental in the Cuban Revolution. In fact, as as Argentine, he was the only non-Cuban rebel to travel to Cuba on the Granma with Fidel Castro to overthrow Batista.
  73. In 1982 there was a brief war between ___________ and Argentina over the Falkland islands (Las Islas Malvinas). Argentina lost this war and the military government there was humiliated and lost power soon thereafter.
  74. The “FSLN” is the Nicaraguan revolutionary group better known as the ____________. The “contras” fought against this group.
  75. This was the most important political figure in Brazil in the twentieth century. He dominated the political scene for a quarter of a century, moved Brazil into the world of industrialization, mass urbanization, working-class politics, and populism. He moved from authoritarian dictator to elected president.
  76. Brazil remained free from the type of repressive military dictatorships that plagued countries like Chile and Argentina in the sixties and seventies and eighties. That is, Brazilian people did not experience the same type of brutal repression, and the jailings, torture, and the “disappeared” found elsewhere were not part of life in Brazil.
  77. In Colombia, drug trafficking permeates all aspects of life: the revenues from the multibillion dollar drug trade provide the country with a favorable trade balance, provide employment for thousands, and finance politicians of all types.
  78. The name for the leftist insurgent group in Peru that followed a “prolonged popular war” was ________. The group was inspired by Mao Zedong and founded by Abimael Guzmán (aka Comrade Gonzalo), who was captured and imprisoned in 1993.
  79. At the beginning of the 20th century, banana plantations controlled by United States-based multinational corporations took shape on the Caribbean cost. Coffee and bananas dominated the Central American economies, accounting for 60-90% of the exports. ________________, in particular, became the epitome of the so-called “banana republic,” as foreign corporations dominated the economy and sometimes even toppled governments.
  80. This was the Archbishop of El Salvador who was assassinated while saying mass in 1980. He had become an outspoken critic of the violence against the people and the priests and nuns who were advocates of liberation theology. His open critiques of right-wing violence—carried out by the military and death squads—led to his untimely death. There is an American movie about this man starring Raul Julia.
  81. The most impoverished nation in the Americas today is ________. It currently has no functioning national institutions (no national government or security forces have functioned since 2003), massive unemployment, and constant illegal immigration to the USA and to the Dominican Republic.
  82. This country serves as a vital transit point between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. By crossing the isthmus here, one cuts 8,000 miles off of the trip by water from the New York to San Francisco.
  83. This Panamanian leader was the target of the U.S. invasion of Panama known as “Operation Just Cause” (1989). The man had once been on the payroll of the CIA and the U.S. Army as an informer. He had been involved with the Colombian drug trade and arms trafficking to rebels in El Salvador and Nicaragua.
  84. The social caste system, which the Spaniards used to determine social class and status based on ancestry (e.g., white v. indigenous) and blood purity (not mixed with those of other races), was invented in the Americas after the arrival of the Spaniards in 1492. Simply put, there was no need for a caste-based system in Europe prior to that because there were no “Indians” there.
  85. The social caste system, which the Spaniards used to determine social class and status based on ancestry (e.g., white v. indigenous) and blood purity (not mixed with those of other races), was invented in the Americas after the arrival of the Spaniards in 1492. Simply put, there was no need for a caste-based system in Europe prior to that because there were no “Indians” there.
  86. Which of these groups were a part of the collision of cultures in the New World in the 15th century that gave rise to the region that we know as Latin America?
  87. Which of the following is NOT one of the modern day components of the common process of conquest, colonization, resistance and accommodation that allows us to speak of the unity of Latin America?
  88. In Mexico, Central America, and the Andean regions (Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia), there are still large numbers of ____.
  89. In the 19th and 20th centuries, peoples from the Middle East and Asia began to emigrate to the Americas.
  90. The most traditional definition of the term “Latin America” is a political one that includes 20 countries that gained their independence from Spain, Portugual, and France in the nineteenth century. The British West Indies, Guyana, Suriname, and Curaçao do NOT fit into this definition even though they were once part of the Spanish Empire.
  91. African slavery predates the discovery of the New World. In fact, the Europeans and Africans had traded in goods and slaves for at least a century prior to Columbus’s voyage. And the practice of slavery within the African continent itself goes back much, much further.
  92. Which of the following helped propel the Europeans out of Europe and into the vast world in search of gold, glory and also allowed them to spread the gospel?
  93. Which of these is NOT one of the syncretic* religions in the New World? (*Mixtures of Catholicism and African religions or Catholicism and Native American religions. Santería would be an example of this type of mixture.)
  94. The battle between these two groups characterizes much of post-independence Latin America in the 19th century.
  95. Which of the following countries did NOT emerge as one of the most important foreign influences on Latin America after the region declared its independence from Spain and Portugal in the 19th century?
  96. Which of the following groups of countries experienced revolutions of importance in the 20th century?
  97. A South American counterpart to NAFTA is Mercosul (or Mercosur): Mercado Común del Sur. These are both examples of the recent trend in Latin America: namely, the creation of trading blocs through regional integration.
  98. The Zapatistas in southern Mexico (Chiapas) rose up in 1994 against the implementation of this agreement to establish a region trade area.
  99. The challenges for Latin America in the 21st century remain more or less the same as they were in the year 1900. Which is NOT one of these challenges?
  100. The most accurate term used to describe the political connection between Puerto Rico and the USA is _____.

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