SCIN138 SCIN138 Final Exam (APUS)

SCIN138 SCIN138 Final Exam (APUS)


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SCIN138 Final Exam (APUS)

Question 1 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Which of these geologic disciplines is concerned with the worldwide distribution of mineral deposits?

                  A.physical geology         

                 B.economic geology     

                  C.planetary geology     

                  D.historical geology     


Question 2 of 50

                  0.0/ 2.0 Points

What is a positive feedback cycle in a system?

                  A.When a change (increase or decrease) in one system component causes another component to change in the same sense.       

                  B.When a change (increase or decrease) in one system component causes another component to change, which eventually causes the first component to change further in the same sense (sign, direction) as its initial change.     

             C.When a change (increase or decrease) in one system component causes another component to change in the opposite sense.                

                  D.When a change (increase or decrease) in one system component causes another component to change, which eventually causes the first component to change in a sense (sign, direction) opposite its initial change.        


Question 3 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

deformed rockWhen rocks are subjected to stresses beyond their elastic limit they can permanently deform, such as those in the figure below. This is known as ____________.

                  A.brittle deformation  



                 D.ductile deformation                 

                  E.hydrolytic weakening               


Question 4 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Fusion is a nuclear reaction in which

                  A.helium atoms form oxygen   

                 B.hydrogen atoms form helium               

                  C.oxygen atoms form nitrogen                 

                  D.lithium atoms form hydrogen              


Question 5 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

The separation of the interiors of the terrestrial planets by chemical composition is called ________.






Question 6 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Which from the list below is a trace fossil?

                  A.a seed              



                  D.none of the above     

                  E.all of the above            


Question 7 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

To produce water, the drill stem in a shallow water table well must enter the

                  A.vadose zone                  

                  B.cone of depression   


                  D.confined aquifer        

                 E.phreatic zone                


Question 8 of 50

                  0.0/ 2.0 Points

Which of these statements about the scientific method is false?

                  A.Hypotheses can be changed and updated and as experiments are conducted.       

                  B.It is important that the steps in the scientific method by repeatable.          

                  C.Scientists come up with theories all the time when they are working on a problem.             

             D.Observations are unimportant once a hypothesis is proposed.       


Question 9 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Which of the following evidence did Wegener use to support his hypothesis?

                 A.a similarity of rocks about 550 million years old in northeastern Brazil and West Africa    

                  B.bands of magnetized rocks aligned symmetrically on either side of mid-ocean ridges         

                  C.the Wilson Cycle        

                  D.convection as the driving force of plate motion        

                  E.earthquakes concentrated at subduction zones       


Question 10 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Which of these minerals is not a silicate?






Question 11 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Which is not a type of glacier?

                  A.valley glacier                

                  B.all of the above           


                 D.sea ice             



Question 12 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

What change would not increase the albedo of earth?

                  A.increase in cloudiness            

                  B.increase in snow cover           

                  C.increase in ice sheet size      

                 D.increase in ocean surface area          


Question 13 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

The component of crude oil that contains the most carbon atoms per molecule is


                  B.jet fuel             

                  C.diesel fuel     

                  D.natural gas   

                  E.motor oil         

Question 14 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

A collection of _____ elements make more than 99% of Earth’s crust by weight?






Question 15 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Based on the block diagram below, the stratigraphic sequence labeled 3 is younger than the stratigraphic sequence labeled 2. What stratigraphic principle allowed you to determine this observation?

                 A.principle of superposition    

                  B.principle of faunal succession             

                  C.principle of original horizontality      

                  D.principle of cross-cutting relationships         

                  E.none of the above      


Question 16 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

All of the following are indirect forms of solar energy EXCEPT







Question 17 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Limestone exposed to prolonged temperatures of 500°C will eventually ___________.

                  A.exhibit a glassy texture          


                  C.metamorphose into schist   

                  D.melt and become magma     

                 E.metamorphose into marble                  


Question 18 of 50

                  0.0/ 2.0 Points

The deepest and most powerful earthquakes occur at mid-ocean ridges.





Question 19 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Which mineral would you expect to find in sedimentary rocks which you would not find in either igneous or metamorphic rocks?


                 B.halite (rock salt)         




Question 20 of 50

                  0.0/ 2.0 Points

In your field mapping of the Morgantown Quadrangle for the West Virginia Geological Survey, you find an outcrop of metamorphic rock that you eventually identify as an eclogite facies. Which of the following metamorphic conditions (pressure and temperature) is possible for this facies?

                  A.600 MPa; 600°C          

             B.1000 MPa; 800°C       

                  C.200 MPa; 200°C          

                  D.1000 MPa; 300°C       

                  E.400 MPa; 400°C           


Question 21 of 50

                  0.0/ 2.0 Points

What would happen if the melting of Greenland’s ice sheet cut off the “ocean conveyer belt” in the Atlantic? How might that affect our current climate?

                  A.sea level would drop significantly    

                  B.Eastern North America and western Europe would enter into another ice age         

         effect, the ocean conveyer belt will still work      

             D.none of the above     


Question 22 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

For the figure below, a possible explanation for the stratigraphy at site 3, in which unit E sits directly on top of C is


stratigraphic profile

                  A.Stratum D is missing at site 3 because it was never deposited at that location (nondeposition),  

                  B.Stratum D is missing at site 3 because erosion removed it prior to the deposition of stratum E.    

                 C.Both choices a and b are possible explanations       

                  D.none of the above     


Question 23 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Sedimentary rocks often preserve clues about the environment in which the sediment was deposited. Which of these answers would best do that?

                  A.synclines and anticlines        

                  B.normal faults and reverse faults       

                 C.mud cracks and ripple marks               

                  D.layers of lava and ash              


Question 24 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Choose the best examples of a renewable resource.

                 A.wheat crop   


                  C.fertile soil      

                  D.natural gas   



Question 25 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Minerals may become concentrated into deposits by all of the following processes EXCEPT

                  A.Sorting by running water        

                  B.Precipitation from hot water solutions          

                  C.Chemical weathering               

                  D.Fractional crystallization      

                 E.Supercooling by glacial ice    


Question 26 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

The San Andreas fault is a convergent plate margin where the Pacific plate subducts beneath the North American plate, and that is why there are so many powerful earthquakes along this fault.





Question 27 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

globe showing epicentersAccording to the figure below, _______ is the location of the earthquake epicenter. CorrectKobe


Question 28 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Which of the following is a FALSE statement about volcanoes and plate boundaries

                  A.Most of the world's largest volcanic eruptions are from volcanoes associated with subduction zones.     

                  B.Subduction zones result from one plate “diving under” another plate.        

                  C.Subduction zones are found where continental crust and oceanic crust and/or oceanic crust and other oceanic crust converge.               

                  D.Subduction zone volcanoes (typically stratavolcanoes) are associated with large amounts of melting and massive, deadly eruptions.                  

                 E.NONE of the above statements are false, i.e. all are true statements            


Question 29 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Identify this very common mystery mineral, which is almost always present in light colored rocks and sandstones: hardness of 7, no cleavage, exhibits conchoidal fracture, glassy luster.







Question 30 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

If you know the half-life of a radioactive isotope that occurs in an igneous rock, what must you measure to determine the age of the rock?

                  A.age of the fossils within the rock       

                  B.amount of daughter element in the rock.     

                  C.amount of remaining parent isotope within the rock              

                  D.only ages of sedimentary rocks can be determined using radioactive isotopes      

                 E.both b and c  


Question 31 of 50

                  0.0/ 2.0 Points

You are a geologist assigned to interpret the formation and history of a site. Upon investigation, you report that this site was subjected to large fluctuations in water velocity and energy. Which clue provided you with evidence for your interpretation?

                  A.raindrop impressions              

             B.cross bedding               

                  C.ripple marks                  


                  E.graded bedding           


Question 32 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Identify this very common mystery mineral found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks: hardness of 5.5, two cleavage directions (intersecting at 60 and 120 degrees), nonmetallic luster, specific gravity = 3.3, and dark green to black color.







Question 33 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Choose the correct list of the four principal fossil fuels.

                 A.natural gas, coal, oil, peat    

                  B.shale oil, peat, diesel, coal  

                  C.coal, shale oil, natural gas, nuclear                  

                  D.natural gas, gasoline, oil, coal            

                  E.coal, hydroelectric, oil, natural gas


Question 34 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Why does the accumulation of salt in the oceans NOT provide a means to estimate how long the oceans have existed?

                  A.Ocean salinity continually increases over time because it is an open system and the water is constantly evaporating.  

                  B.Aquatic plants and animals obtain elements, such as silicon, calcium, and phosphorus, to build their shells or skeletons, from the ocean sediment.  

                 C.Salinity input, output and flux balance each other, keeping the composition of seawater essentially unchanged.              

                  D.All of the above           


Question 35 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Choose the INCORRECT statement regarding cooling and crystallization of igneous rocks.

                  A.Bowen’s Reaction Series is an example of the process of fractional crystallization.              

                  B.Vesicular igneous rocks have large bubble holes from gases.            

                 C.Phaneritic igneous rocks are made up of minerals too small to be seen by the naked eye.                

                  D.Mafic rocks are generally low in silica content (~50% SiO2..                

                  E.Granite is the plutonic equivalent of the volcanic rock rhyolite.       


Question 36 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

The basic difference between gymnosperm and angiosperm, is the development of _____in the latter.







Question 37 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

If you are drilling a water well for your new home and don’t want to install a pump to lift the water to the surface, you would drill into and finish your well to produce from

                  A.the phreatic zone      

                 B.a confined aquifer with high water pressure               

                  C.a confined aquifer with low water pressure                 


                  E.the vadose zone          


Question 38 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Lithospheric plates 'floating' on the asthenosphere is a condition called ____, which is similar to wood floating on water. Correctisostasy


Question 39 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Meteorologists on the Weather Channel sometimes describe a major flood as a “100-year flood”. This means that this level of flooding can only happen once in a 100-year time span at this particular location.              




Question 40 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

The Ediacaran Period of geologic time is important because

                  A.the fossils that define this period were discovered in the 1800s     

        is the only period of the Proterozoic defined by macroscopic fossils.        

         was defined based on radiometric dating of igneous rocks             

                  D.It was one of the first periods of the Geologic Column to be defined more than 120 years ago        

                  E.choices a and e            


Question 41 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Fragments of unmelted rocks that are sometimes incorporated in magma are known as _______.


                  B.iron meteorites          


                  D.volcanic bombs          


Question 42 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Which of the following is NOT a credible hypothesis for the rapid diversification of Cambrian life?

                 A.higher oxygen levels                 

                  B.development of the ozone layer        

                  C.sexual reproduction                 

                  D.shells evolved to repel predators    


Question 43 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

If engineers and architects were able to build a New York-style skyscraper on the Antarctic Continent the ice underneath the foundation would eventually _________.





                 E.sag and bend                 


Question 44 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

The S-wave shadow zone is an area of the planet that receives S-waves as the shear waves pass through the Earth’s liquid iron core.




Question 45 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Mass extinctions in geologic history are attributed to many possible causes. What from the list below is a proposed cause?

         with humans               

                  B.impacts by meteors and comets       

                  C.volcanic eruptions.  

                 D.All of the above           

                  E.None of the above     


Question 46 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

In 1912, German meteorologist, Alfred Wegener, wrote and lectured about his hypothesis that continents had once been joined together. He called is idea _______________.


                  B.Plate Tectonics           

                 C.Continental Drift        

                  D.sea-floor spreading



Question 47 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

You come across a sedimentary deposit containing mostly fine sand and dust with little organic evidence. Cross bedding is evident. You determine the sedimentary environment to be:



                  C.tidal flat          

                  D.deep ocean  



Question 48 of 50

                  2.0/ 2.0 Points

Climate represents the ____ behavior of an environmental system.







Question 49 of 50

                  0.0/ 2.0 Points

Choose the INCORRECT statement regarding melting and molten rock.

                  A.Fractional melting refers to the rate at which temperature increases with depth.                

                  B.Rock melts at higher temperatures when pressure increases.         

                  C.Magma viscosity refers to how much the magma resists flow.          

                  D.The highest viscosity magma is generally Rhyolitic magma.               

             E.Rock melts at lower temperatures when water or water vapor is present.                 


Question 50 of 50

                  0.0/ 2.0 Points

For the block diagram below, which of the following statements is (are) true?

                   A.The igneous intrusion labeled B is older than Unit 3                

                  B.The igneous intrusion labeled B is younger than Unit 4.        

                  C.The igneous intrusion labeled B is younger than the tilted sequence 1.       

                  D.Both A and C are true statements.   

             E.Both B and C are true statements  

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