LSTD 204 LSTD204 FINAL EXAM with Answers
LSTD 204 LSTD/204 LSTD204 WEEK 8 FINAL EXAM (AMERICAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY)
1.By most accounts __consensus__has slipped away on the Supreme Court. Between approximately 1930 and 1960, the percentage of cases with at least one dissenting opinion increased around 10 percent to approximately 70 percent.
2. The main actors in the federal judiciary are the men and women who serve as __________ .
3. Several early twentieth century crime commission reports led to what has been called the __________ of criminal justice. Most members of those commissions were reformers who sought to remove corruption and political favoritism from the criminal process.
A.Judicial cleansing era
4. The __________ is the chief local prosecutor at the county level..
B.U.S. Attorney General
5. The history of criminal defense can be traced back to __________.
D.early colonial America
6. Instructors at Harvard used the __Socratic______ method of teaching, a confrontational approach which is intended to improve student's critical thinking in order to present the cases.
7. On the whole most offenses are committed by people __________ .
C.40 or older
D.18 or younger
8. __________ dealt with the admissibility at the defendant's trial of the out-of-court statements made by a four-year-old girl. The Supreme Court held that the Confrontation Clause was not violated in this instance.
A.Florida v. Nixon
B.Betts v. Brady
C.White v. Illinois
D.Ake v. Oklahoma
9. If a defendant is present but refuses to take the stand to testify, as is guaranteed by the _fifth amendment_ , the jury may conclude that the defendant has something to hide
10. Improperly obtained confessions are not admissible.
11. The ___14th_____ Amendment requires that defense counsel be effective during the plea negotiation process
12. In __________, the Court upheld that a prosecutor may file additional charges if an initial expectation that the defendant would plead guilty to a lesser charge proved unfounded.
A.Bordenkircher v. Hayes
B.Brady v. United States
C.Edwards v. People
D.United States v. Goodwin
13. __hearsay___ evidence refers to what someone says, usually someone who is under oath and giving testimony in a trial
14. Day fines were introduced by __________ in the 1920s.
B.the United States
15. __jury consultants___ claim to be able to identify, based on various demographic and behavioral characteristics, how prospective jurors will decide.
16. Once a mistrial is declared, the defendant cannot be tried again.
17. According to the Constitution, convictions can be challenged via a writ of __________ .
18. Sentencing for the purpose of _incapacitation_ amounts to removing criminals from society so they cannot repeat their criminal activity.
19. The __________ has four layers: celebrated cases, serious felonies, not-so-serious felonies and misdemeanors.
A.Wedding Cake Model
B.rush to judgment
C.Layers of Justice Model
20. There is a wealth of evidence that prosecutors have used their __preemptory challenge_ __________ to screen out prospective minority jurors from the trials of minority defendants.
21. Reasons for ___excuse defenses___ include duress, coercion, intoxication, diminished capacity and mental impairment
22. _shaming_____ is a creative judicially imposed punishment that seeks to deter crime by imposing embarrassment or disgrace on an offender.
23. In the __________ DNA testing entered the mainstream.
24. Arbitration is governed by both federal and state laws.
25. The alternative for the conventional process for obtaining testimony from a witness for use in court at a later date.
26. Some examples of _identity theft__ include dumpster diving, skimming, and pretext calling.
27. The juvenile justice system is starting to look more like the adult criminal justice system.
28. Wikipedia has been widely recognized as an authoritative source on which to base a legal decision.