HIS 310 HIS310 Final Exam with Answers

HIS 310 HIS310 Final Exam with Answers


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1. Discuss the importance and tradition of tajdid (renewal) and islah (reform) in Islam and summarize how this manifested itself in the Muslim community during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

2. Discuss Western involvement in the Middle East as a result of the decision by the Ottoman Empire to enter World War I as allies of Germany. What were the long-term consequences of this involvement?

3. What were the similarities and differences between the adaptation to modern times between the rise of modern Turkey, modern Saudi Arabia, and modern Iran?

4. Compare and contrast the impact of the 1948-1949 Arab-Israeli war on those countries allied against Israel: Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, and Egypt. Summarize the common overall effect.

5. Explain the growth and spread of religious revivalism in Muslim countries since the late 1960s. How does the ideological framework of Islamic revivalism embraced by radical activists compare to that held by the moderate majority of Muslims?

6. Compare and contrast the multiple ways Islam has been used since the 1970s by governments and activist groups in Libya, Egypt, Iran, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia.

7. Compare and contrast the 1967 War (between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, and Syria) and the October, or Yom Kippur, War in 1973 (between Israel and Egypt.) What were the causes of each and what were their outcomes and consequences?

8. Define intifadah and explain how this became a movement in recent Middle Eastern history. Include in your answer a summary of how it has influenced both regional and international developments since its inception to the present day.

9. Discuss the changes that have taken place in the lives of Muslim women over the course of the last century. What has influenced these changes, what are the different interpretations of a woman's role in Islamic society, and what does "liberation" mean in Western and Islamic terms?

10. Discuss the White Revolution in Iran. Why did it occur, what did it achieve, and how is it related to the Iranian Revolution of 1979?

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