ANTH 216 ANTH216 Problem Set 4 Solution (Penn State University)

ANTH 216 ANTH216 Problem Set 4 Solution (Penn State University)

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ANTH 216 Problem Set 4 Solution (Penn State University)

1. Sexual reproduction involves two processes: meiosis and recombination.

2. Sexual reproduction must produce some benefits that are sufficient to outweigh these costs; otherwise it would not have become so widespread.  One idea is that, through meiosis, it increases the diversity of genotypes in the population and thus makes it more likely that the population will be able to adapt to environmental change.  How likely is this as an explanation for the spread of sexual reproduction?

3. These questions concern the lottery principle.

a. What is the supposed benefit of sex, according to the lottery principle?

b. Who supposedly gets this benefit?

c. Is this benefit likely to explain all cases of sexual reproduction? Why or why not?

4. These questions concern the Red Queen hypothesis.

a. What is the supposed benefit of the Red Queen hypothesis?

b. Who supposedly gets this benefit?

c. Is this benefit equally important in all environments? Why or why not?

5. Sexual reproduction is logically possible without sexes: An individual could combine its gametes with the gametes of any other member of its species.

b. Why did sexes evolve?

6. These questions concern hermaphroditism.

b. What are the three types of hermaphrodites?

c. For each type of hermaphroditism, state what selective conditions might favor its existence.


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